We believe that this topic is to be treated with the utmost care and absolute responsibility, especially for those with no experience and decides to play his broodmare.
We will try to explain some basic aspects of the period of heat and reproductive, we will analyze the different stages of the reproductive life of the female taking into account not only the purely scientific aspects, but also considering some precautions to keep our broodmare in health, such as the main needs’ physiological health, welfare throughout the period from rest to gestation.
It would be preferable to act in advance of the heat of the female, choosing time for the breeding male, whereas genealogy, morphology, character and was healthy. In fact, the choice and the coupling of the two specimens should not be done casually, but with knowledge of the facts based on certain aspects of genealogical and morphological traits that any good breeder should implement or advise. We prefer to say simply that the two examples chosen for this purpose must complement each other in many ways, considering all the factors that often determine the reproductive success, improving the results obtained in terms of the quality of the offspring.
The period of the heat of the female is distinguished in these different phases:
Phase = anoestrus also called period of rest, is the relationship between a periodic heat and the other, and may have a variable length between approximately 6-8 months ..
in this long interval, are designed very carefully breeding plans and should be paid special attention to the identification of the subjects that we would like to play (female and male), assessing the state healthy and compatibility genealogical, morphological and character. The subjects chosen will undergo veterinary visits to exclude future risks to reproductive health, the veterinarian will anticipate vaccinations if they are short-term (not recommended to vaccinate during pregnancy), and advise you what to do based on the result of check-ups of coupling. May be needed medical measures to be implemented in order to prepare as best as possible the health of players. should be excluded from playing the carriers of genetic defects, morphological defects and organic diseases that ripresenterebbero on offspring, producing puppies defective or diseased (eg. herpes virus that is easily transmitted during mating) usually the male used for breeding should be of similar size or smaller than the female, conversely the risk of disticocie is high (problems related to childbirth due to the difficulty of expulsion of fetuses since macrosomic are therefore larger for anatomical dimensions of the mare)
WARNING: Made of no small importance meant for the management – the economic reproduction of Chihuahua: those who decide to breed your female will be considered to afford the size of which can vary according to several factors, predictable and non-predictable eg :
Payment of the mating of the male if you do not have the stallion or if you do not want to give the puppy as “Law of Monta”
veterinary fees for any conduct of the Vaginal Smear (need to understand if the female is ready to mate or not)
expenses for any practices of artificial insemination (if the players do not cooperate or otherwise)
expenses for medical pre- mating plus any prescribed therapies (vaccinations extraordinary restorative therapies, tests to ascertain exemption communicable diseases and genetic defects etc ..)
expenses for medical examinations during pregnancy: ultrasound monitoring, additional veterinary therapy (eg. verminazioni and vitamin supplements) change of power with foods usually more expensive veterinary care to the dam etc …
Expenditure related to surgical interventions: caesarean section (frequent in this race) and related assistance in veterinary clinic
expenses for the purchase of various principals for proper seating of the entire litter (cash delivery, various fences, disposable consumable, lamps or other heating system for survival puppies, milk powder, etc ..)
expenses due to the growth of the pups (power, verminazioni, vaccinations, various possible)
miscellaneous expenses: any travel / trips to reach the / etc … his wife, ENCI practices, practices ASL, etc …
These are costs which we can not escape if we do not want to risk the health of our breeders and puppies, so we wanted to emphasize them before you become pregnant, because a litter of Chihuahua is the world with many human endeavors and costs too high, so if at that time we can not support them, better leave it alone!
= Proestrus phase is the period that opens the phase of the heat, the female begins to show swelling of the genitals and after a few days will start blood loss that will last about 7-10 days. In questoperiodo, generally, the female is not fertile (has not ovulated) but sometimes it can still occur as pairs males begin to sniff out traces of pheromones (hormones birds that attract males from a distance) and you will increasingly insistent against the female in heat.
Measures: recommend to monitor their daily female, especially if they must mate must separate it from the male, however if you have to take it to the male coupling is advisable only to start the knowledge, few minutes a day.
CAUTION: Use of panties or similar principals NOT prevents mating, only serve to limit blood loss in the environment but are totally ineffective as contraceptive systems !! Be very careful, not always the females rejected the advances of males !!
Estro phase is the period of the actual heat, here in the female is fertile because it is ovulating. Usually starts from 7-9 days after the onset of menstruation, when the uterine lining (endometrium) has completed the cycle of change and blood loss are more rare or cease altogether .. During oestrus, which takes about 4-5 days , the female is a maximum of ovarian and is very receptive to the male, it will try and accept his courtship (male and female chase in small corsette very funny and unusual for the caregiver to the show!), and will make the coupling by moving the tail and showing his genitals to the male. In this period the female is at its maximum fertility (ovulation) and then, if it was decided for the coupling of the two subjects, the female must be brought to the male (usually it is the female that reaches the males in his environment where the male feels safer) During mating is always placed carefully and if necessary, in the case of females “restless”, you can take action to try to calm the girl and make her stay as still as possible close to his companion. The node (act where the two dogs remain united) should never be forcibly stopped, you risk breaking the bone in the penis of the male or the female genital massive laceration. Let them stay together for as long as is necessary, worry only if we go wineskin 45-60 minutes. pairs, at this stage, must be repeated (one per day) for 1 or 2 times by letting it stand subjects for at least 24 hours between a coupling and the other. It ‘possible that in certain circumstances, the two parties do not join for various reasons (incompatibility of character of one of the two, or inexperience of one of the two females or males too antisocial, or simply because they have chosen well’) in this If you can resort to artificial insemination (to be made by the veterinary staff specialized) safe practice that has the same percentage of fertilization of the ACC. natural.
Phase metoestrus: immediately following the inspiration, in this period the heat subsides until they ceased altogether, the female will not be fruitful and will no longer accept being approached and mounted by any male.
Pregnancy: If the female has been successfully paired, will begin the stage of gestation, which will last from 58 to 65 days. in the first 3-4 weeks of gestation did not notice large abdominal bulges while we realize some sensitive mood changes of the bitch, that will be more calm in general, with mutations in appetite (may eat less due dell’emersi gravidarum temporary or have more hunger in subsequent periods) and will tend to remain more private and secluded. these days we will not have to make any changes to his diet and even their style of life, it is still early to do so. Around 30 day you will do ultrasound check to verify the real state of pregnancy and possibly try to count the fetuses in formation, but this count is often unreliable, for this purpose is improved radiological investigation to be carried out later. To 45 days of pregnancy the female will begin to show the nice bump (more or less severe depending on the number of fetuses and therefore might have trouble, try to avoid overexertion or races, instead will benefit a lot more comfortable walking in the hours of the day. Is also time to change the almentazione inserting gradually feed for puppies that provides more protein and calcium than adult food. mind you not to gain weight over the dam, otherwise it will produce fetuses obese hinder natural childbirth. Towards 50 days or a little more, it is possible to perform a RX abdomen to determine the number of fetuses content and their position according to which we will also have an indication on the type of delivery that might occur (according to directions of the veterinarian). from 58 mo day we enter the week in which the midwife will take delivery, in one way or another the puppies will be born. You’ll have to time already prepared the cash delivery, settled in a quiet corner of the house without drafts (fatal x puppies) and you will have already procured and prepared everything necessary to assist the mother and puppies just nati.Nelle 12-24 hours prior to the breaking of the water, we can detect a body temperature lower than usual (under 37 °) which will confirm that the female is preparing the event. Another sign of the impending birth could be the appearance of the milk (squeezing the nipples escapes the characteristic secretion colostrina) .The female iniziarà to rasp as if to dig a hole, try to hide and will be more agitated than usual, panting: is the time of breakage of the water. Or we can see that the bags placental overlook vaginal orifice, and the female often tend to lick the genitals and urinate frequently. We do not add agitation, in these cases, the calm is a must, let him go to his course intervening only when necessary. If all goes well the female, within 4-6 hours after the breaking of the water, will give birth to the first puppy and so on to follow with intervals between a puppy and the other up to 2 -3 hours (for the management and delivery of the puppy to see special chapter) .In case you have planned a caesarian section, the time of breaking of the waters is the signal to transport the female at the studio veterinarian, according to instructions received from your veterinarian ahead of time.